Αντιπλημμυρικά Μέτρα

Flood control dam

General plan of Rapentosa dam
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A flood control dam is a dam built to catch surface runoff and stream water flow in order to regulate the water flow in areas below the dam. Flood ...

Permeable paving

Typical details of permeable paving (Source: Smith, 2009)
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Permeable paving is a range of sustainable materials and techniques for permeable pavements with a base and sub base that allow the movement of wat...

Stormwater retention tank

Retention tank of Acharnai case study during construction
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Stormwater tanks are an effective way of reducing peak flow and equalising flow rates from storm water runoffs in the sewer system. Placed strategi...

Rain garden

A home rain garden recently planted
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A rain garden is a planted depression or a hole that allows rainwater runoff from impervious urban areas, like roofs, driveways, walkways, parking ...

Afforestation

Afforestation An area of "lost mining settlements", old coal pits and disused waste bings, now being planted by Scottish Woodland.
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Land use conversion is a general term for large scale geographic change. Afforestation is one such land conversion in which trees are planted on pr...

Maintenance of hydraulic structures of the storm drainage system

Ring road, Volos, Greece
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Set up regulations on maintenance of the hydraulic structures and drainage network infrastructures so that their maximum conveyance capacity will b...

International loan

World Bank
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Emerging-economy governments have the opportunity to borrow at low interest rates from international lending organizations aiming at pre-disaster p...

Floodwall

Steel Barrier
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A floodwall is a primarily vertical artificial barrier designed to temporarily contain the water of a river or other waterway which may rise to unu...

Evacuation plan

Flood evacuation plan
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The purpose of evacuation is to relocate people temporarily from areas at risk of the consequences of flooding to places of safety. Emergency evacu...

Amphibious building

Amphibious homes Maasbommel, Netherlands © Dura Vermeer
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Amphibious buildings lie on the ground out of flood periods and are likely to float when the water level rises during flood. They do not therefore ...

Artificial sand dunes and dune rehabilitation

Rebuilding of dunes on Grande Isle, a barrier island south of New Orleans, 2008. Team New Orleans, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic
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Naturally occurring sand dunes are wind-formed sand deposits representing a store of sediment in the zone just landward of normal high tides. Artif...

Beach nourishment

Beach nourishment at the Dutch coast
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Beach nourishment is an adaptation technology primarily used in response to shoreline erosion, although flood reduction benefits may also occur. It...

Bioretention area

A bioretention cell, also called a rain garden in the United States
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A bioretention area is a stormwater treatment system that is a depression integrated into the landscape. A bioretention area captures runoff from a...

Budget diversion

Budget allocation for flood impacts mitigation. Source: Michael McGrath
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Governments of emerging-economy countries raise money for disaster response and rehabilitation by diverting funds from other budgeted items such as...

Building elevation

Elevation of building on piles
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Building elevation is a measure mainly suitable for new constructions, but it can also be applied on existing buildings. The building is elevated t...

Building relocation

 Wolfe House & Building Movers uses the Buckingham Power Dolly System to move a house in Newark, Delaware
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A building relocation is the process of moving a building from one location to another. There are two main methods for a building to be moved: disa...

Building without a crawlspace

A slab foundation in Spring Hill Tn. Photo by Van Woody
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Crawlspaces vent the underside of a building and thereby prevent the moulding of dry wooden floors. However, with the introduction of concrete slab...

Ditch

Ditches at the Ouse Washes nature reserve.
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A ditch is usually defined as a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, e.g. to drain water from l...

Bypass channel

Flood relief channel along river Rhine at Nijmegen, the Netherlands
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Bypass channel, also known as a flood-relief channel, is an artificially made waterway constructed in order to protect urban and rural agricultural...

Canal and rill

Rill at Manor park in Zaluz
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Canals and rills are open surface water channels with hard edges. They are simply channels that water flows along whereby they can have a variety o...

Cascading flood compartment system

Principle of a cascading system of flood compartments. Pasche et al.,2008
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The “system of cascading flood compartments” combines area prevention with constructional solutions. The idea is to (re)build a second dikeline of ...

Check valve

Non-Return Valve
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A check valve or non-return valve is installed in pipes which are vulnerable for backflow in flood conditions. Backflow is known to take place in t...

Coastal setback

A pre-Coastal Act home and more current setback requirements along a blufftop in Pismo Beach impacted by bluff erosion. Lester C., 2014(Tim Paone and Our Land Use & Natural Resources Team)
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Coastal setbacks are a prescribed distance to a coastal feature such as the line of permanent vegetation, within which all or certain types of deve...

Evacuation routes at elevated level

Generalized scheme of evacuation planning (Nagao 2005)
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Evacuation routes at an elevated level are necessary as a route for safe evacuation in flood events. They should be constructed above the highest e...

Conventional urban drainage systems

Rigid pipeline system with flexible joints for conveyance of stormwater and storage / attenuation, available with optional dry weather flow channel and side entry manhole access.
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The purpose of urban drainage systems (a.k.a. collection systems) is to enable safe and reliable disposal of stormwater runoff (i.e., they are at t...

Data collection

UN officials meet with the population of an affected village in Rakhine state (2015).Credit: FAO/ Bui Thi Lan
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Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic fashion, which then enable...

Deculverting of watercourses

Daylighted Saw Mill River in Getty Square, Yonkers, New York. Previously, the river was covered by a parking lot
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This activity involves techniques to resolve the issues created by culverted watercourses. This is predominantly through deculverting, or ‘daylight...

Demountable flood protection barrier

Demountable flood barrier in action
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Demountable flood protection barriers consist of a combination of removable and pre-installed permanent components. The system is planned to be ere...

Rainwater disconnection

A network of underground pipes called the MS4 discharges Washington’s stormwater into local waterways with little treatment.D.C. Department of Energy and Environment
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Rainwater disconnection, i.e. the separation of the sewage system from the rainwater discharge system, is also a solution to prevent sewer flooding...

Land use plan / spatial planning

Spatial planning
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Spatial planning systems are the methods used by the public sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scal...

Dredging of watercourse

River Parrett Dredging Scheme (UK)
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The term dredging is used to refer to the systematic removal of accumulated material from river or other watercourse channels. In its most extreme ...

Dry-floodproofing technology

Basic dry flood-proofing measures for a residential structure (Source: Linham and Nicholls, 2010)
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Dry floodproofing is a method of flood preparation that involves building designs and material choices that do not allow for the entry of floodwate...

Dike

The side of a levee in Sacramento, California
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A dike or levee is an elongated artificially constructed embankment, which protects low-lying areas against higher water levels. It is usually made...

Elaboration of municipal archives on major hazards

Flood hazard map, Evros river, provided by Greek Ministry of Environment, under EU Flood directive 2007/60
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Through municipal archives, citizens will be able to be kept informed about both the natural and technological risks to which the municipality has ...

Emergency exit of buildings above highest flood level

A man is helped from a first floor window by rescue teams in Carlisle, Cumbria, UK (Dec, 2015). Photo: Paul Kingston/North News
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The main exit of a building is traditionally positioned at ground level. In case of a flood this only exit may be blocked by water and debris taken...

Emergency operation centre and personnel

New Provincial Emergency Operations Centre, Toronto Canada, image by Marcus Mitani
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An Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) is a central location where response personnel can coordinate and make decisions in support of emergency respon...

Emergency supplies and utilities

Cambodia - WFP Provides Emergency Food Supplies in Flood-Affected Areas. WFP/Meng Chanthoeun
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Emergency supplies and utilities are necessary in case of a flood emergency. It should consist of food and drinks, first aid kit and other provisio...

Family emergency planning

Harris County Flood control district. Family Flood Preparedness Plan
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Disasters and emergencies such as floods can affect people in any part of the world and at any time of the year, swiftly and without warning. Even ...

Filled container

TrapBag® cellular containment barrier system in Fargo, North Dakota (USA), installed in 2011 for flood control.
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These are cellular barriers filled with aggregates or water to form a barrier against floodwater. Containers can be divided into two categories, pe...

Filter drain

French Drain Diagram
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A filter drain is a gravel filled trench, generally with a perforated pipe at the base. Runoff flows slowly through the granular material, trapping...

Filter strip

Filter strip
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Filter strips are gently sloping, vegetated strips of land that provide opportunities for slow conveyance and infiltration (where appropriate). The...

Floodplain excavation

Floodplain excavation plan for the River Waal, Netherlands (Jun, 2015)
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Floodplain excavation is a measure by which gradual height increase caused by sedimentation on flood plains may be counteracted. The floodplain can...

Filter trench

Infiltration trench
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Filter trenches are shallow excavations filled with rubble or stone that create temporary subsurface storage of stormwater runoff. These trenches c...

Floating agricultural system

Floating agriculture at Lake Inle, Burma (Source: Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons)
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Floating agriculture is a way of utilising areas which are waterlogged for long periods of time in the production of food. The technology is mainly...

Floating building

Floating pavilion in Rotterdam
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The basic characteristic of floating buildings is that they are not supported by a firm foundation, but float on water. Traditional foundations are...

Flood detention reservoir

Boneyard Detention Basin
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Flood detention reservoir, also known as an attenuation or balancing or flood control reservoir or detention basin, collects water at times of ve...

Flood forecasting and early warning

FloodAlert System
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Flood forecasting is an important component of flood warning. Flood forecasting involves prediction of water levels and flows at particular locatio...

Pond

Stormwater retention pond
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A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or artificial, that is usually smaller than a lake. They may arise naturally in floodplains as p...

Flood gate

The Rokugo floodgate, located in Ota Ward, Tokyo, Japan
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These barriers are made of a single or pair of rigid sections (usually steel or fibreglass), designed to close a gap within a flood defence. They a...

Flood hazard mapping

Flood hazard map for the area around Cairns, Australia (Source: Nicholls et al., 2007a)
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Flood hazard mapping is an exercise to define those areas which are at risk of flooding under extreme conditions. As such, its primary objective is...

Flood insurance

Flooding resulting from Hurricane Katrina
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Flood insurance is an important risk management tool that can be applied at various levels: individual, corporate and government. It provides a mec...

Flood proof infrastructure

Radical storm proofing systems  in New York city
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Evacuation routes and infrastructure in cities that are prone to flooding need to be flood proofed. Available options to reduce the negative impact...

Flood shelter

Bangladesh flood shelter. GCSE Unit 2 : Coastal Landscapes. Patricia Kokkinos, 2015
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Flood shelters are created in areas which experience severe flooding. Elevated flood shelters should be constructed above the highest expected floo...

Land claim

Reclaiming in Perth, Australia 1964
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The main objective of land claim is neither erosion nor storm reduction. The aim of land claim is instead, to create new land from areas that were ...

Frame barrier

Metal frame barriers in use at Bewdley, Worcestershire (© 2014, John Palmer)
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Frame barriers consist of rigid frames with impermeable membranes or sections spanning between them. They rely on supporting frames and the weight ...

Freestanding barrier

Freestanding temporary flood barrier designed for fast response to flood threats in an urban environment, on hard and even surfaces like tarmac, paving and concrete.
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These modular systems are made of impermeable materials and are joined together to form a continuous barrier or wall. These products are self suppo...

Government debt instrument

Government debt intrument
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A common way for emerging-economy governments to raise funds after a disaster is to borrow from their central bank reserves or to issue government ...

Green roof

Green roof at the British Horse Society headquarters
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Green roof belongs in the category of SUstainable Drainage Systems (SUDS) and aims at source controlling. A green roof or living roof is a roof of ...

Floating road

Floating road(TNO Traffic and Transport - Transport  Matters - December 2003)
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Road transport infrastructure and evacuation routes that are prone to flooding need to be flood proofed to reduce the vulnerability and negative im...

Green wall

London's largest living wall will "combat flooding"
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A green wall is a wall partially or completely covered with vegetation that includes a growing medium, such as soil. Most green walls also feature ...

Gutter

Street gutter in Gamla stan (Old Town), Stockholm
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A gutter is a non-permeable open drain to collect transport rainwater. Usually a gutter runs along a road. It is connected to either a manhole or a...

High water mark

Mayor Karl Dean unveils the High Water Mark Initiative on the 3-year anniversary of the city's May 2010 flood (Nashville, TN, USA).
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A high water flood mark is a point that represents the maximum rise of a body of water over land. Such a mark is often the result of a flood and ai...

Sunken lane

A hollow way (chemin creux) at La Meauffe, Manche, France
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A sunken lane (also hollow way or holloway) is a road or track which is significantly lower than the land on either side, not formed by the (recen...

Increase of infiltration capacity

Methods to increase infiltration capacity
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Improving the soil infiltration capacity means improving the permeability of the soil. If the infiltration capacity of the soil is increased, more ...

Improved construction site preparation

Flooded construction site of ground zero, New York, USA
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Improved construction site preparation is focused on improving the strength and drainage capabilities of an area that is converted from a rural or ...

Increased capacity of sewer/drainage system

Expansion of the stormwater sewer network in Oropos, Greece
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Increasing the capacity of the sewer/drainage system increases the ability of the system to drain excess surface water during heavy rains and preve...

Red alert exercise

Primary school students exercise inside a classroom as outdoor activities are banned due to heavy smog. Reuters
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A red alert emergency exercise enables the simulation/testing of population/authorities response and plans in case of an extreme flood event occurs...

Managed realignment

Medmerry Realignment. Improved Flood Protection and Compensatory Wetland Habitat(Southern England)
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Managed realignment or managed retreat allows an area that was not previously exposed to flooding by the sea to become flooded by removing coastal ...

Monitoring and flood forecasting through partnerships

Learning and Action Alliance in Rethymno, Greece. Local stakeholders of Rethymno city, participate in workshop for flood risk management. An example of flood monitoring through partnership.
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Organizing and recording partnerships between the various actors so that optimal responsiveness of the population can be produced in case of a warn...

Multi-functional flood defences

Multifunctional flood defences.Opportunities in the Netherlands (Ellen Tromp, Msc. CE PA,2014)
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Multifunctional Flood Defences (MFD) is a newly developed concept to optimize allocation of urban space rather than constructing stand-alone struct...

Municipal flood control plan

Gannawarra Shire Council Municipal Flood Emergency Plan
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The municipal plan expresses the shared goals, objectives and priorities of a community and allows its members to work together for a specific goal...

Flood emergency framework

The National Flood Emergency Framework for England
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Flood emergency framework sets out the government’s strategic approach to achieving the aims set out below and is intended for use by all those inv...

Network of waterways

Adjusted water system layout in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China. Cheng et al., 2013
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A network of waterways is mainly focused on connecting water bodies which are located near each other. By connecting them with culverts and canals,...

Hydrological and Meteorological Observatory

AMMA-CATCH is a national observation service (SNO) dedicated to long-term monitoring of climatological, hydrological and ecological changes in West Africa.
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Hydrological and Meteorological Observatory is an observation service dedicated to long-term monitoring of climatological and hydrological changes....

Polder

Polder (Enhancing the applicability of the polder concept, by Eelco van der Pal)
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A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments (barriers) known as dikes that forms an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it ha...

Prescription on the construction code

Building codes for the new housing prone to flooding in the settlement restriction zone. The new buildings are elevated above the expected 100 year flood event
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Impose implementation of measures for mitigation and vulnerability reduction through the construction code of town planning. (ASFPM, Modifications ...

Public awareness, information, education and communication

The Environment Agency (UK) raising awareness of flood risk at the Three counties show.
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Inform local citizens and visitors about the major hazards through public meetings, flyers, website, training, collaborative platforms, brochures,...

Pumping station

Jordan River pumping station at Utah Lake
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A pumping station is used to discharge water out of an area. It can be used to transport sewer water in pressure mains. Another option is to be use...

Wharf

The Barbours Cut Terminal of the Port of Houston, USA. This cargo shipping terminal has a single large wharf with multiple berths.
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Wharf is the oldest term in English referring to port structures. It denotes any structure of timber, masonry, cement, or other material built alon...

Rainwater harvesting system

A rainwater cistern
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The term rainwater harvesting refers to reuse of stored water, including water purification, and can form part of a sustainable drainage system. Al...

Unused sewers

Semi-abandoned College Street sewer, at the Bridge/Siphon Room (Michael Cook of Vanishing Point)
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Many towns and cities have large numbers of unused sewers. It is often too expensive to remove them. Giving those unused sewers a second life for r...

Rainwater storage beneath sports fields

Sports field Stormwater Harvesting /Recycling:
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One option for creating additional water storage facilities is storing in underground crates. This is a hidden technology that fits the criteria of...

Raised kerb

Raised kerb
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Kerb or curb is the edge of the pavement at the side of the road. Water can be channeled along streets with raised kerbs and also to limit contact ...

Rescue plan

Polish navy helicopter W-3 as air ambulance, search and rescue
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The aim of flood rescue operations is to move people from immediate or potential harm to safety. Failed evacuation operations (e.g. evacuation oper...

Reserve funds

Save money. http://www.401kcalculator.org/
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Building a catastrophic reserve fund is one of the measures assisting risk management as it will enable claims to be provided in years with unusual...

Sandbag wall

Residents and volunteers work to fill sandbags during the Mississippi and Missouri river floods of 1993.
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A sandbag is a bag or sack made of hessian / burlap, polypropylene or other materials, that is filled with sand or soil and it is used for flood de...

Dike relocation

The finished dike relocation of Lent (project: Room for the River). Panorama bridge. © Dirk Oomen/oomenlandschap
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A new dike is built further away from the river or the coast after which the existing dike is removed. This leads to an increase of the flood plain...

Flexible water level management

Plan Tide, Dordrecht, the Netherlands(Aerial view © De Stijlgroep)
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Flexible water level management involves anticipating precipitation that has been forecast. The water level is lowered before a shower is expected,...

Seawall

Poland sea wall
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Seawalls are hard engineered structures with a primary function to prevent further erosion of the shoreline. They are built parallel to the shore a...

Sectional barrier

Far view of the River Thames Flood Barrier
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These systems consist of multiple sections made of rigid materials such as steel or fibreglass which are joined or interlocked to form a continuous...

Seepage barrier

Seepage Barriers
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Seepage barriers are constructed in order to control and mitigate the subsurface flow, or seepage of water. Depending on the method employed, they...

Soakaway

Old drywell
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Soakaways are square or circular excavations either filled with rubble or lined with brickwork, pre-cast concrete or polyethylene rings/perforated ...

Adjustment of fairway

Adjustment of fairway under Room for the river project. Waal, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Photo by Thea van den Heuvel / DAPh
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Adjustment of the fairway contains every constructional measure to a navigable channel, e.g. Broadening of curved fairways, deepening of the fairw...

Stilt house building

City of Yawnghwe in the Inle Lake
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A stilt house is a raised structure that is most commonly built above water, although it also may be built over dirt or sand. It is sometimes calle...

Storm surge barrier

Eastern Scheldt storm surge barrier near Westenschouwen, the Netherlands
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Storm surge barriers are hard engineered structures with a primary function of preventing coastal flooding. Their secondary role is to shorten the ...

Swale

View of a grass-lined channel, also called a grassy swale or bioswale, in the US(U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service)
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A swale is a low tract of land, especially one that is moist or marshy. The term can refer to a natural landscape feature or a human-created one. A...

Tax relief

The IRS will provide tax relief for flood victims in several South Carolina counties, including Sumter County, above. © Demotix Live News/Demotix/Corbis
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After a disaster, the government can raise funds for disaster rehabilitation with a tax. Like hedging instruments, a tax spreads the costs of the d...

Toroba

A Schematic Representation of a Homemade Structure (Toroba) in Venezuela.  Source: Douglas Martínez, FUDECO, Barquisimeto, Venezuela.
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Toroba is a homemade diversion structure that is used to divert flood water for water supply augmentation. It is built of wooden poles, taken from ...

Tubes

Air filled tubes in operation.Temporary and Demountable Flood  Protection  Guide (Ogunyoye F. et. al., 2011, p. 38) )
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Tubes (air filled or water filled) flood protection products are typically pre-fabricated geo-membrane or reinforced PVC tubes filled with air or w...

Urban forest and park

 Sao Paulo city seen from Serra da Cantareira
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An urban forest is a forest or a collection of trees that grow within a city, town or a suburb. In a wider sense it may include any kind of woody p...

Buildings as flood defence

Building as flood protection © atelier GROENBLAUW
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New and existing buildings in flood risk areas can be used as flood defence. The buildings should be completely integrated in the flood defence to ...

Water square

Water plaza at Bellamyplein
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The water square combines water storage with the improvement of the quality of urban public space. It makes money invested in water storage facilit...

Wet-floodproofing technology

Basic wet flood-proofing measures for a residential structure (Source: Linham and Nicholls, 2010)
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Wet-floodproofing can be an appropriate approach to improve the flood resilience of new and existing buildings, particularly in areas at high flood...

Wetland and wetland restoration

The Hamilton Wetland Restoration Project at Whiteside Marsh, on the former Hamilton Air Force Base.
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A wetland (Natural or Constructed/Artificial) is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on ...

Dike inspection and/or recovery

24-hour inspection underway on dike of Huarong River in central China
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Inspection of the flood protection dikes takes place in order to observe and assess the state of the dike and especially after a storm surge events...

Safety margins in new investment

Vertical cross-section of New Orleans, showing maximum levee height of 23 feet (7 m) at the Mississippi River on the left and 17.5 feet (5 m) at Lake Pontchartrain on the right
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Uncertainties in climate change make it difficult to predict precisely the required degree of protection. Often, when it is cheap, it is sensible t...

Stormwater harvesting system

Schematic showing how to catch rainwater from hillsides. From the book "Earthship Volume 2:Systems and components" by Michael Reynolds.
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Stormwater harvesting (SWH) consists in collecting, storing and reusing stormwater collected from drains or creeks, on the contrary to rainwater ha...

Aquifer recharge

Aquifer storage and recovery well in a confined aquifer. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2004-3128, Nov. 2004
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Aquifer recharge is achieved by adding surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, wells or other facilities where it infiltrates into the soil and ...

Vulnerability assessment

Flood disaster vulnerability of the terrain of Niger State.
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Vulnerability assessment is important in to consider in risk management and flood damage assessment. Researches with vulnerability subject involves...

Creation of a second dike line

Two dikes in the Sigma Plan (Sheldt estuary, Belgium)
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A second dike line is created by building other dikes, mostly bigger dikes, on the water side of existing dikes, which will not be removed. Buildin...

Dike reinforcement

Dike reinforcement
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Dike reinforcement describes the process of strengthening the dike by e.g. raising the dike height, widening of the dike crest, broadening the who...

Revetment

Revetment along Oples River (Liliw, Laguna)
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Revetments are sloping structures placed on banks or cliffs in such a way as to absorb the energy of incoming water. River or coastal revetments ar...

Sluice

Sluice gates near Henley, on the River Thames
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A sluice is a gate used to control the rate of flow of water. It fulfills the function of a flood protection and hinterland drainage. In normal ope...

Groyne

Groyne near Westerland, Sylt, Germany, July 2002.
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A groyne is normally a straight structure perpendicular to the shoreline. Groynes work by blocking (part of) the littoral drift, whereby they trap/...

Fascine

Templin Channel in Templin, Germany. Riverbank strengthened with fascines.
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A fascine is a bundle of sticks or brushwood used in construction, generally to strengthen an earthen structure, fill ditches, or make a path acros...

Breakwater

Offshore breakwaters in Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal defense or to protect a port and port entrance from the effects of both heavy s...

River Training

Lock and Dam No. 2, near Hastings, Minnesota (2007)
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River training refers to the structural measures which are taken to improve a river and its banks. River training is an important component in the ...

Weir

A weir on the Humber River near Raymore Park in Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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A weir is a barrier across a river designed to alter the flow characteristics. In most cases weirs take the form of obstructions smaller than most ...

Hydraulic filling

Hydraulic filling by mechanical dredging
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Hydraulic Fill is fill in which the materials are deposited by a flowing stream of water. This fill material will originate from a borrow area or d...

Sediment replenishment

Sand nourishment methods (Stronkhorst et al, 2013)
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Sediment replenishment method is one of new measures of sediment management mostly used in river systems where dams/reservoirs have been created. I...

EU Flood Risk Management Directive

Flood risk management plans
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EU adopted the Flood Risk Management Directive. Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks entered into force on 26 Novem...

Independent commission for flood and disaster risk reduction

National Nonstructural Flood Proofing Committee. US Army Corps of Engineers
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An Independent commission is a politically independent executive arm. It is alone responsible for drawing up proposals for new legislation. (Europe...

Port restructuring

Port Lock Harburg, Hamburg-Harburg
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Restructuring of the layout of the port, its equipment and flood protection system.

Dwelling mound

Hafen City: All new buildings (left) have been elevated on flood-secure plinths.
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A dwelling mound is an artificial hill made from earth, created to provide safe ground for humans and animals during storm surges. This concept ha...

Rip rap

Riprap lining a lake shore
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Rip rap is large boulders of rock that are placed along the edge of the coastline and is sometimes referred to as rock armouring. They work by diss...

Social network mapping

Network map of all connections in sample (defined as community, civil protection and social protection)
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Social network mapping can help stakeholders to locate their place within a wider network, and this network can be communicated and explained to ot...

Community involvement

Illinois Valley Flood Resiliency Alliance
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Community involvement is a bottom up approach which involves the community in decision-making process. For example, communities living in flood-pro...

Multi-level capacity building

Capacity building in South Sudan (UNDP). Photo: Jennifer Warren/UNDP
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According to the UNDP, in the global context, capacity refers to the ability of individuals and institutions to make and implement decisions and pe...

Retention of rainwater in the vicinity of a roundabout

Retention of rainwater in the vicinity of roundabout
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In case of an extreme event the surface runoff is conveyed by the streets to a roundabout, where it is temporarily stored and infiltrated into the ...

Multi-layer safety as a central concept for flood protection

Multi-layer safety, prevention, sustainable spatial planning and disaster management © Beleidsnota Waterveiligheid 2009-2015
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The central concept for the revised water safety policy is formed by 'multi-layer safety'. In this concept safety is assured through multiple layer...

Living with water - principles

Playa Vista from the south, with Bluff Creek in foreground
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The pursuit of a safe, healthy and sustainable water management is of national interest in the Netherlands. Themes like "water and the city", "wat...

Αντιπλημμυρικά Μέτρα

Name Definition
Flood control dam A flood control dam is a dam built to catch surface runoff and stream water flow in order to regulate ...
Permeable paving Permeable paving is a range of sustainable materials and techniques for permeable pavements with a base and sub base that ...
Stormwater retention tank Stormwater tanks are an effective way of reducing peak flow and equalising flow rates from storm water runoffs in the ...
Rain garden A rain garden is a planted depression or a hole that allows rainwater runoff from impervious urban areas, like roofs, ...
Afforestation Land use conversion is a general term for large scale geographic change. Afforestation is one such land conversion in which ...
Maintenance of hydraulic structures of the storm drainage system Set up regulations on maintenance of the hydraulic structures and drainage network infrastructures so that their maximum conveyance capacity will ...
International loan Emerging-economy governments have the opportunity to borrow at low interest rates from international lending organizations aiming at pre-disaster planning or ...
Floodwall A floodwall is a primarily vertical artificial barrier designed to temporarily contain the water of a river or other waterway ...
Evacuation plan The purpose of evacuation is to relocate people temporarily from areas at risk of the consequences of flooding to places ...
Amphibious building Amphibious buildings lie on the ground out of flood periods and are likely to float when the water level rises ...
Artificial sand dunes and dune rehabilitation Naturally occurring sand dunes are wind-formed sand deposits representing a store of sediment in the zone just landward of normal ...
Beach nourishment Beach nourishment is an adaptation technology primarily used in response to shoreline erosion, although flood reduction benefits may also occur. ...
Bioretention area A bioretention area is a stormwater treatment system that is a depression integrated into the landscape. A bioretention area captures ...
Budget diversion Governments of emerging-economy countries raise money for disaster response and rehabilitation by diverting funds from other budgeted items such as ...
Building elevation Building elevation is a measure mainly suitable for new constructions, but it can also be applied on existing buildings. The ...
Building relocation A building relocation is the process of moving a building from one location to another. There are two main methods ...
Building without a crawlspace Crawlspaces vent the underside of a building and thereby prevent the moulding of dry wooden floors. However, with the introduction ...
Ditch A ditch is usually defined as a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used ...
Bypass channel Bypass channel, also known as a flood-relief channel, is an artificially made waterway constructed in order to protect urban and ...
Canal and rill Canals and rills are open surface water channels with hard edges. They are simply channels that water flows along whereby ...
Cascading flood compartment system The “system of cascading flood compartments” combines area prevention with constructional solutions. The idea is to (re)build a second dikeline ...
Check valve A check valve or non-return valve is installed in pipes which are vulnerable for backflow in flood conditions. Backflow is ...
Coastal setback Coastal setbacks are a prescribed distance to a coastal feature such as the line of permanent vegetation, within which all ...
Evacuation routes at elevated level Evacuation routes at an elevated level are necessary as a route for safe evacuation in flood events. They should be ...
Conventional urban drainage systems The purpose of urban drainage systems (a.k.a. collection systems) is to enable safe and reliable disposal of stormwater runoff (i.e., ...
Data collection Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic fashion, which then ...
Deculverting of watercourses This activity involves techniques to resolve the issues created by culverted watercourses. This is predominantly through deculverting, or ‘daylighting’ which ...
Demountable flood protection barrier Demountable flood protection barriers consist of a combination of removable and pre-installed permanent components. The system is planned to be ...
Rainwater disconnection Rainwater disconnection, i.e. the separation of the sewage system from the rainwater discharge system, is also a solution to prevent ...
Land use plan / spatial planning Spatial planning systems are the methods used by the public sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in ...
Dredging of watercourse The term dredging is used to refer to the systematic removal of accumulated material from river or other watercourse channels. ...
Dry-floodproofing technology Dry floodproofing is a method of flood preparation that involves building designs and material choices that do not allow for ...
Dike A dike or levee is an elongated artificially constructed embankment, which protects low-lying areas against higher water levels. It is ...
Elaboration of municipal archives on major hazards Through municipal archives, citizens will be able to be kept informed about both the natural and technological risks to which ...
Emergency exit of buildings above highest flood level The main exit of a building is traditionally positioned at ground level. In case of a flood this only exit ...
Emergency operation centre and personnel An Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) is a central location where response personnel can coordinate and make decisions in support of ...
Emergency supplies and utilities Emergency supplies and utilities are necessary in case of a flood emergency. It should consist of food and drinks, first ...
Family emergency planning Disasters and emergencies such as floods can affect people in any part of the world and at any time of ...
Filled container These are cellular barriers filled with aggregates or water to form a barrier against floodwater. Containers can be divided into ...
Filter drain A filter drain is a gravel filled trench, generally with a perforated pipe at the base. Runoff flows slowly through ...
Filter strip Filter strips are gently sloping, vegetated strips of land that provide opportunities for slow conveyance and infiltration (where appropriate). They ...
Floodplain excavation Floodplain excavation is a measure by which gradual height increase caused by sedimentation on flood plains may be counteracted. The ...
Filter trench Filter trenches are shallow excavations filled with rubble or stone that create temporary subsurface storage of stormwater runoff. These trenches ...
Floating agricultural system Floating agriculture is a way of utilising areas which are waterlogged for long periods of time in the production of ...
Floating building The basic characteristic of floating buildings is that they are not supported by a firm foundation, but float on water. ...
Flood detention reservoir Flood detention reservoir, also known as an attenuation or balancing or flood control reservoir or detention basin, collects water at ...
Flood forecasting and early warning Flood forecasting is an important component of flood warning. Flood forecasting involves prediction of water levels and flows at particular ...
Pond A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or artificial, that is usually smaller than a lake. They ...
Flood gate These barriers are made of a single or pair of rigid sections (usually steel or fibreglass), designed to close a ...
Flood hazard mapping Flood hazard mapping is an exercise to define those areas which are at risk of flooding under extreme conditions. As ...
Flood insurance Flood insurance is an important risk management tool that can be applied at various levels: individual, corporate and government. It ...
Flood proof infrastructure Evacuation routes and infrastructure in cities that are prone to flooding need to be flood proofed. Available options to reduce ...
Flood shelter Flood shelters are created in areas which experience severe flooding. Elevated flood shelters should be constructed above the highest expected ...
Land claim The main objective of land claim is neither erosion nor storm reduction. The aim of land claim is instead, to ...
Frame barrier Frame barriers consist of rigid frames with impermeable membranes or sections spanning between them. They rely on supporting frames and ...
Freestanding barrier These modular systems are made of impermeable materials and are joined together to form a continuous barrier or wall. These ...
Government debt instrument A common way for emerging-economy governments to raise funds after a disaster is to borrow from their central bank reserves ...
Green roof Green roof belongs in the category of SUstainable Drainage Systems (SUDS) and aims at source controlling. A green roof or ...
Floating road Road transport infrastructure and evacuation routes that are prone to flooding need to be flood proofed to reduce the vulnerability ...
Green wall A green wall is a wall partially or completely covered with vegetation that includes a growing medium, such as soil. ...
Gutter A gutter is a non-permeable open drain to collect transport rainwater. Usually a gutter runs along a road. It is ...
High water mark A high water flood mark is a point that represents the maximum rise of a body of water over land. ...
Sunken lane A sunken lane (also hollow way or holloway) is a road or track which is significantly lower than the land ...
Increase of infiltration capacity Improving the soil infiltration capacity means improving the permeability of the soil. If the infiltration capacity of the soil is ...
Improved construction site preparation Improved construction site preparation is focused on improving the strength and drainage capabilities of an area that is converted from ...
Increased capacity of sewer/drainage system Increasing the capacity of the sewer/drainage system increases the ability of the system to drain excess surface water during heavy ...
Red alert exercise A red alert emergency exercise enables the simulation/testing of population/authorities response and plans in case of an extreme flood event ...
Managed realignment Managed realignment or managed retreat allows an area that was not previously exposed to flooding by the sea to become ...
Monitoring and flood forecasting through partnerships Organizing and recording partnerships between the various actors so that optimal responsiveness of the population can be produced in case ...
Multi-functional flood defences Multifunctional Flood Defences (MFD) is a newly developed concept to optimize allocation of urban space rather than constructing stand-alone structures. ...
Municipal flood control plan The municipal plan expresses the shared goals, objectives and priorities of a community and allows its members to work together ...
Flood emergency framework Flood emergency framework sets out the government’s strategic approach to achieving the aims set out below and is intended for ...
Network of waterways A network of waterways is mainly focused on connecting water bodies which are located near each other. By connecting them ...
Hydrological and Meteorological Observatory Hydrological and Meteorological Observatory is an observation service dedicated to long-term monitoring of climatological and hydrological changes. It gathers data ...
Polder A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments (barriers) known as dikes that forms an artificial hydrological ...
Prescription on the construction code Impose implementation of measures for mitigation and vulnerability reduction through the construction code of town planning. (ASFPM, Modifications to Existing ...
Public awareness, information, education and communication Inform local citizens and visitors about the major hazards through public meetings, flyers, website, training, collaborative platforms, brochures, public presentations, ...
Pumping station A pumping station is used to discharge water out of an area. It can be used to transport sewer water ...
Wharf Wharf is the oldest term in English referring to port structures. It denotes any structure of timber, masonry, cement, or ...
Rainwater harvesting system The term rainwater harvesting refers to reuse of stored water, including water purification, and can form part of a sustainable ...
Unused sewers Many towns and cities have large numbers of unused sewers. It is often too expensive to remove them. Giving those ...
Rainwater storage beneath sports fields One option for creating additional water storage facilities is storing in underground crates. This is a hidden technology that fits ...
Raised kerb Kerb or curb is the edge of the pavement at the side of the road. Water can be channeled along ...
Rescue plan The aim of flood rescue operations is to move people from immediate or potential harm to safety. Failed evacuation operations ...
Reserve funds Building a catastrophic reserve fund is one of the measures assisting risk management as it will enable claims to be ...
Sandbag wall A sandbag is a bag or sack made of hessian / burlap, polypropylene or other materials, that is filled with ...
Dike relocation A new dike is built further away from the river or the coast after which the existing dike is removed. ...
Flexible water level management Flexible water level management involves anticipating precipitation that has been forecast. The water level is lowered before a shower is ...
Seawall Seawalls are hard engineered structures with a primary function to prevent further erosion of the shoreline. They are built parallel ...
Sectional barrier These systems consist of multiple sections made of rigid materials such as steel or fibreglass which are joined or interlocked ...
Seepage barrier Seepage barriers are constructed in order to control and mitigate the subsurface flow, or seepage of water. Depending on the ...
Soakaway Soakaways are square or circular excavations either filled with rubble or lined with brickwork, pre-cast concrete or polyethylene rings/perforated storage ...
Adjustment of fairway Adjustment of the fairway contains every constructional measure to a navigable channel, e.g. Broadening of curved fairways, deepening of the ...
Stilt house building A stilt house is a raised structure that is most commonly built above water, although it also may be built ...
Storm surge barrier Storm surge barriers are hard engineered structures with a primary function of preventing coastal flooding. Their secondary role is to ...
Swale A swale is a low tract of land, especially one that is moist or marshy. The term can refer to ...
Tax relief After a disaster, the government can raise funds for disaster rehabilitation with a tax. Like hedging instruments, a tax spreads ...
Toroba Toroba is a homemade diversion structure that is used to divert flood water for water supply augmentation. It is built ...
Tubes Tubes (air filled or water filled) flood protection products are typically pre-fabricated geo-membrane or reinforced PVC tubes filled with air ...
Urban forest and park An urban forest is a forest or a collection of trees that grow within a city, town or a suburb. ...
Buildings as flood defence New and existing buildings in flood risk areas can be used as flood defence. The buildings should be completely integrated ...
Water square The water square combines water storage with the improvement of the quality of urban public space. It makes money invested ...
Wet-floodproofing technology Wet-floodproofing can be an appropriate approach to improve the flood resilience of new and existing buildings, particularly in areas at ...
Wetland and wetland restoration A wetland (Natural or Constructed/Artificial) is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that ...
Dike inspection and/or recovery Inspection of the flood protection dikes takes place in order to observe and assess the state of the dike and ...
Safety margins in new investment Uncertainties in climate change make it difficult to predict precisely the required degree of protection. Often, when it is cheap, ...
Stormwater harvesting system Stormwater harvesting (SWH) consists in collecting, storing and reusing stormwater collected from drains or creeks, on the contrary to rainwater ...
Aquifer recharge Aquifer recharge is achieved by adding surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, wells or other facilities where it infiltrates into ...
Vulnerability assessment Vulnerability assessment is important in to consider in risk management and flood damage assessment. Researches with vulnerability subject involves diverse ...
Creation of a second dike line A second dike line is created by building other dikes, mostly bigger dikes, on the water side of existing dikes, ...
Dike reinforcement Dike reinforcement describes the process of strengthening the dike by e.g. raising the dike height, widening of the dike crest, ...
Revetment Revetments are sloping structures placed on banks or cliffs in such a way as to absorb the energy of incoming ...
Sluice A sluice is a gate used to control the rate of flow of water. It fulfills the function of a ...
Groyne A groyne is normally a straight structure perpendicular to the shoreline. Groynes work by blocking (part of) the littoral drift, ...
Fascine A fascine is a bundle of sticks or brushwood used in construction, generally to strengthen an earthen structure, fill ditches, ...
Breakwater Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal defense or to protect a port and port entrance from ...
River Training River training refers to the structural measures which are taken to improve a river and its banks. River training is ...
Weir A weir is a barrier across a river designed to alter the flow characteristics. In most cases weirs take the ...
Hydraulic filling Hydraulic Fill is fill in which the materials are deposited by a flowing stream of water. This fill material will ...
Sediment replenishment Sediment replenishment method is one of new measures of sediment management mostly used in river systems where dams/reservoirs have been ...
EU Flood Risk Management Directive EU adopted the Flood Risk Management Directive. Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks entered into force ...
Independent commission for flood and disaster risk reduction An Independent commission is a politically independent executive arm. It is alone responsible for drawing up proposals for new legislation. ...
Port restructuring Restructuring of the layout of the port, its equipment and flood protection system.
Dwelling mound A dwelling mound is an artificial hill made from earth, created to provide safe ground for humans and animals during ...
Rip rap Rip rap is large boulders of rock that are placed along the edge of the coastline and is sometimes referred ...
Social network mapping Social network mapping can help stakeholders to locate their place within a wider network, and this network can be communicated ...
Community involvement Community involvement is a bottom up approach which involves the community in decision-making process. For example, communities living in flood-prone ...
Multi-level capacity building According to the UNDP, in the global context, capacity refers to the ability of individuals and institutions to make and ...
Retention of rainwater in the vicinity of a roundabout In case of an extreme event the surface runoff is conveyed by the streets to a roundabout, where it is ...
Multi-layer safety as a central concept for flood protection The central concept for the revised water safety policy is formed by 'multi-layer safety'. In this concept safety is assured ...
Living with water - principles The pursuit of a safe, healthy and sustainable water management is of national interest in the Netherlands. Themes like "water ...